TRANISITIONAL GOVERNEMENT OF ETHIOPIA
  • EDUCATION AND TRAINING POLICY
  • Addis Ababa
  • April, 1994
  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • 1. INTRODUCTION

  • 2. OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING
  • 2.1 General Objectives
  • 2.2 Specific Objectives

  • 3. OVERALL STRATEGY
  • 3.1 Curriculum
  • 3.2 Educational Strcture
  • 3.3 Educational Measurement and Examination
  • 3.4 Teachers
  • 3.5 Languages and Education
  • 3.6 Nexus Between Education, Training, Research and Development
  • 3.7 Educational Support Inputs.
  • 3.8 Educational Organization and Management
  • 3.9 Educational Finance

  • 4. AREAS OF SPECIAL ATTENTION AND ACTION PRIORITY


  • INTRODUCTION

    Education is a process by which man transmits his experiences, new findings, and values accumulated over the years, in his struggle for survival and development, through generations. Education enables individuals and society to make all-rounded participation in the development process by acquiring knowledge, ability, skills and attitudes. One of the aims of education is to strengthen the individual's and society's problem-solving capacity, ability and culture starting from basic education and at all levels. Education enables man to identify harmful traditions and replace them by useful ones. It helps man to improve, change, as well as develop and conserve his environment for the purpose of an all-rounded development by diffusing science and technology into the society. Education also plays a role in the promotion of respect for human rights and democratic values, creating the cordition for equality, mutual understanding and cooperation among people. Education does not operate in isolation, rather it has to be integrated with research, practice and development to contribute towards an all-rounded development of society. To date, it is known that our country's education is entangled with complex problems of relevance, quality, accessibility and equity. The objectives of education do not take cognizance of the society's needs and do not adequately indicate future direction. The absence of interrelated contents and mode of presentation that cart develop student's knowledge, cognitive abilities and behavioral change by level, to adequately enrich problem-solving ability and attitude, are some of the major problems of our education system. Inadequate facilities, insufficient training of teachers, overcrowded classes, shortage of books and other teaching materials, all indicate the low quality of education provided. The gross participation rate of primary education is below 22% of the relevant age cohort Of these a large number discontinues and relapse to illiteracy. The disparity among regions is high. illiteracy is an overall problem of the society. opportunities for high school education and technical and vocational training are limited to big towns. Higher education institutions are found only in very few regions. they are overcrowded and their research capacity is very low. The necessary infrastructure to provide relevant quality education to the rural population, which is over eighty-five percent of the population of the country, is at an insignificant level of development. Aware of the complex problems the country has plunged in by the previous dictatorial, self centered and vain regimes, the transitional government of Ethiopia has embarked on charting the right direction Of development to break the vicious circle we have been entangled in. Education, as a very important factor to human development, is of a high priority in the overall development endeavor of the government. Hence, it requires an appropriate direction to set a new process in motion and change the alarming situation. For this, a comprehensive education and training policy is formulated. The policy encompasses overall and specific objectives, implementation strategies, including formal and non-formal education, from kindergarten to higher education and special education. It emphasizes the development of problem solving capacity and culture in the content of education, curriculum structure and approach, focusing on the acquisition of scientific knowledge and practicum. Along with this, it directs that there be appropriate nexus between education, training, research and development through coordinated participation among the relevant organizations. The policy incorporates the structure of education in relation to the development of student profile, educational measurement and evaluation, media of instruction and language teaching at various levels, the recruitment, training, methodology, organization, professional ethics and career development of teachers. Due attention is also given to the provision and appropriate usage of educational facility technology, materials, environment, organization and management so as to strengthen the teaching-learning process and the expansion of education. The evolution of a decentralized, efficient and professionally coordinated participatory system is indicated in respect of administration and management of the education system. It is also stated that the financing of education be just, efficient and appropriate to promote equity and quality of education. Overall, the education and training policy envisages bringing-up citizens endowed with humane outlook, countrywide responsibility and democratic values having developed the necessary productive, creative and appreciative capacity in order to participate fruitfully in development and the utilization of resources and the environment at large.

  • 2. OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING



  • 2.1 General Objectives

  • 2.1.1 Develop the physical and mental potential and the problem-solving capacity of individuals by expanding education and in particular by providing basic education for all.

  • 2.1.2 Bring up citizens who can take care of and utilize resources wisely, who are trained in various skills, by raising the private and social benefits of education.

  • 2.1.3 Bring up citizens who respect human rights, stand for the wel1 being of people, as well as for equality, justice and peace, endowed with democratic culture and discipline.

  • 2.1.4 Bring up citizen who differentiate harmful practices from useful ones, who seek and stand for truth, appreciate aesthetics and show positive attitude towards the development and dissemination of science and technology in society.

  • 2.1.5 Cultivate the cognitive, creative, productive and appreciative potential of citizens by appropriately relating education to environment and societal needs.

  • 2.2 Specific Objectives

  • 2.2.1 To promote relevant and appropriate education and training through formal and non-formal programmes.

  • 2.2.2 To develop and enrich students' inquisitive ability and raise their creativity and interest in aesthetic.

  • 2.2.3 To enable both the handicapped and the gifted learn in accordance with their potential and needs.

  • 2.2.4 To provide basic education and integrated knowledge at various levels of vocational training.

  • 2.2.5 To satisfy the country's need for skilled manpower by providing training in various skills and at different levels

  • 2.2.6 To make education training and research be appropriately integrated with development by focusing on research.

  • 2.2.7 To provide secular education.

  • 2.2.8 To make education a supportive tool for developing traditional technology, and for utilizing modern technology.

  • 2.2.9 To provide education that promotes democratic culture, tolerance and peaceful resolutions of

    differences and that raises the sense of discharging societal responsibility.
  • 2.2.10 To provide education that can produce citizens who stand for democratic unity, liberty, equality,

    dignity and justice and who are endowed with moral values.
  • 2.2.11 To provide education that promote the culture of respect for work, positive work habits and high regard for workmanship.

  • 2.2.12 To recognize the rights of nations/nationalities to learn in their language, while at the same time providing one language for national and another one for international communication.

  • 2.2. 13 To gear education towards re-orienting society's attitude and value pertaining to the role and contribution of women in development.

  • 2.2.14 To provide education that can produce citizens who possess national and international outlook in the environment. Protect natural resources and historical heritages of the country.

  • 2.2. 15 To provide education that can produce citizens who have developed attitudes and skills to use and tend private and public properties appropriately.

  • 3. OVERALL STRATEGY



  • 3.1 Curriculum

  • 3.1.1 The preparation of curriculum will be based on the stated objectives of education, ensuring that the relevant standard and the expected profile of students are achieved.

  • 3.1.2 Create a mechanism by which t e a c h e r s , professionals from major organizations of development , and beneficiaries participate in the preparation, implementation and evaluation of the curriculum.

  • 3.1.3 Ensure that the curriculum developed and textbooks prepared at central and regional levels, are based on sound pedagogical and psychological principles and are up to inter- national standard, giving due attention to concrete local conditions and gender issues.

  • 3.1.4 Create a mechanism for an integrated educational research, and overall periodic evaluation of the educational system, whereby a wide ranging of participation is ensured to foster appropriate relation among the various levels of education, training, research, development and societal needs, maintaining the required standards.

  • 3.2 Educational Structure

  • 3.2.1 Kindergarten will focus on all round development of the child in preparation for formal schooling.

  • 3.2.2 Primary education will be of eight years duration, offering basic and general primary education to prepare students for further general education and training.

  • 3.2.3 Secondary education will be of four years duration, consisting of two years of general secondary education which will enable students identify their interests for further education, for specific training and for the world of work. General education will be completed at the first cycle (grade 10). The second cycle of secondary education and training will enable students to choose subjects or areas of training which will prepare them adequately for higher education and for the world of work.

  • 3.2.4 Higher education at diploma, first degree and graduate levels, will be research oriented, enabling students become problem-solving professional leaders in their fields of study and in overall societal needs.

  • 3.2.5 Non-formal education will be provided beginning and parallel to basic education and at all levels of formal education.

  • 3.2.6 Basic education will focus on literacy, numeracy, environment, agriculture, crafts, home science, health services and civics.

  • 3.2.7 Non-formal education will be concrete in its content, focusing on enabling the learners develop problem- solving attitudes and abilities.

  • 3.2.8 Parallel to general education, diversified technical and vocational training will be provided for those who leave school from any level of education.

  • 3.2.8.1 Training will be p r o v i d e d i n agriculture, crafts, construction, basic bookkeeping in the form o f apprenticeship for those with the appropriate age and leaving primary school.

  • 3.2.8.2. Technical and vocational training in agriculture, industrial arts, construction, commerce and home science will be provided after primary education for those who may not continue general education.

  • 3.2.8.3 Technical training will be provided for those who complete grade ten for the development of middle level manpower.

  • 3.2.9 Special education and training will be provided for people with special needs.

  • 3.3 Educational Measurement and Examination

  • 3.3.1 Continuous assessment in academic and practical subjects, including aptitude tests will be conducted to ascertain the formation of all round profile of students at all levels.

  • 3.3.2 National examinations will be conducted at grade eight and ten to certify completion of primary and general secondary education respectively.

  • 3.3.3 In order to, get promoted from one level to the next, students will be required to have a minimum of fifty percent achievement

  • 3.3.4 Students will be officially certified at the completion of the various levels of education.

  • 3.3.5 Official certification will also be given to those who complete technical and vocational training programmes.

  • 3.3.6 After the second cycle of secondary education, students will be required to sit for examinations of relevant institutions for admission.

  • 3.3.7 A national organization of educational measurement and examination will be established to provide central professional guidance and coordination as well as to make the necessary expertise available.

  • 3.4 Teachers

  • 3.4.1 Ascertain that teacher trainees have the ability diligence professional interest, and physical and mental fitness appropriate for the profession.

  • 3.4.2 Create a mechanism by which employers, training institutions and the Teachers Association participate in the recruitment of trainees

  • 3.4.3 Teacher education and training components will e m p h a s i z e b a s i c knowledge, professional code of ethics methodology and practical training.

  • 3.4.4 Teachers will be certified before assigned to teach at any level of education.

  • 3.4.5 Teachers, starting from kindergarten to higher education, will be required to have the necessary teaching qualification and competency in the media of instruction, through pre-service and in service training.

  • 3.4.6 The criteria for the professional development of teachers will be continuous education and training, pro-fessional ethics and teaching performance.

  • 3.4.7 A professional career structure will be developed in respect to professional development of teachers.

  • 3.4.8 Teacher training institutions, including higher education, will function, autonomously with the necessary authority, responsibility and accounta-bility.

  • 3.4.9 Teacher training institutions of all levels will be required to gear their programmes towards the appropriate educational level for which they train teachers.

  • 3.4.10 Special attention will be given to the participation of women in the recruitment, training and assignment of teachers.

  • 3.4.11 Teacher training for special education will be provided in regular teacher training programmes.

  • 3.4.12 Various steps will be taken to promote incentives to motivate teachers specially to those assigned in hardship areas.

  • 3.5 Languages and Education

  • 3.5.1 Cognizant o f the pedagogical advantage of the chi Id in learning in mother tongue and the rights of nationalities to promote the use of their languages, primary education will be given in nationality languages.

  • 3.5.2 M a k i n g t h e necessary preparation, nations and nationalities can either learn in their own language or can choose from among those selected on the basis of national and countrywide distribution.

  • 3.5.3 The language of teacher training for kindergarten and primary education will be the nationality language used in the area.

  • 3.5.4 Amhar i c shall be taught as a language of countrywide communication.

  • 3.5.5 English will be the medium of instruction for secondary and higher education.
  • 3.5.6 Students can choose and learn at least one nationality language and one foreign language for cultural and international relations.

  • 3.5.7 English will be taught as a subject starting from grade one.

  • 3.5.8 The necessary steps will be taken to strengthen language teaching at all levels.

  • 3.6 Nexus Between Education, Training, Research and Development

  • 3.6.1 The participation of students in technical and higher education programmes, in gaining the necessary field experience before graduation will be facilitated.

  • 3.6.2 The participation of teachers and researchers in getting the necessary field experience in various development and service institutions and professionals of such institutions in teaching will be facilitated.

  • 3.6.3 Coordinated curriculum development will be ensured so that students and trainees will acquire the the necessary entrepreneurial and productive attitudes and skills.

  • 3.6.4 Governmental and non-governmental organizations can establish training programmes according to their needs.

  • 3.6.5 An appropriate organizational mechanism will be created to streamline and accredit technical and vocational training and coordinate the necessary certification.

  • 3.6.6 Non-formal education and training programmes will be organized by the various development and social institutions in coordination with the Ministry of Education.

  • 3.6.7 Traditional education will be improved and developed by being integrated w i t h modern education.

  • 3.6.8 Research of practical societal impact will be given priority and the necessary steps will also also be taken to facilitate the coordinated efforts of all those concerned.


  • 3.7 Educational Support Inputs

  • 3.7.1 In order t o promote the quality, relevance and expansion of education, due attention will be given to the supply, distribution and utilization of educational m a t e r i a I s , educational technology and facilities.

  • 3.7.2 Mechanisms of manpower training and maintenance, proper utilization of educational support inputs will be developed to ensure relevance and standards.

  • 3.7.3 A mechanism for coordinated production and distribution of educational support inputs at the institutional, woreda, zonal, regional and central levels will be created to strengthen the teaching -learning process, research and various other educational activities, in accordance with the curricular needs and standards of the various levels and types of education.

  • 3.7.4 Due attention will be given to popular participation, in the production, distribution, utilization, upkeep, care and safety of educational material s, educational technology and facilities.

  • 3.7.5 The participation of various organizations and individuals will be enhanced i n the production, supply and distribution of educational support inputs.

  • 3.7.6 Special attention will be given in the preparation and utilization of support input for special education.

  • 3.7.7 Special attention will be given to women and to those students who did not get educational opportunities in the preparation, distribution and use of educational support inputs.

  • 3.8 Educational Organization and Management
  • 3.8.1 Clear guidelines, stating the rights andduties of all involved in education, will be issued to ensure participatory and proper professional relations in their activities.

  • 3.8.2 Educational management will be decentralized to create the necessary condition to expand, enrich and improve the relevance, quality, accessibility and equity of education and training.

  • 3.8.3 Educational management will be democratic, professional coordinated, efficient and effective, and will encourage the participation of women.

  • 3.8.4 Educational institutions will be autonomous in their internal administration and in the designing and implementing of education and t training programmes, with an overall coordination and democratic leadership by boards or committees, consisting of members from the community (society), development and research institutions, teachers and students.

  • 3.8.5 The management of teachers and other educational personnel will be organized, on the basis of professional principles, including professional code of ethics, salary, working conditions, incentives, professional growth and overall rights and duties.

  • 3.9 Educational Finance

  • 3.9.1 The priority for government financial support will be up to the completion of general secondary education and related training (grade 10) with increased cost-sharing at higher levels of education and training.

  • 3.9.2 Mechanisms will be created for students to cover their educational expenses through service or payment after graduation.

  • 3.9.3 Scholarship will be given to deserving(outstanding) students.

  • 3.9.4 Special financial assistance will be given to those who have been deprived of educational opportunities, and steps will be taken to raise the educational participation of deprived regions.

  • 3.9.5 The government will give financial support to raise the participation of women in education.

  • 3.9.6 The government will create the necessary conditions to encourage and give support to private investors to open schools and establish various educational and training institutions.

  • 3.9.7 The necessary conditions will be created for educational and training institutions to generate their own income and to use it to strengthen the educational process.

  • 4. AREAS OF SPECIAL ATTENTION AND ACTION PRIORITY



  • 4.1 Change of curriculum and preparation of education materials accordingly.

  • 4.2 Focus on teacher training and overall professional development of teachers and other personnel.

  • 4.3 Change of educational organization and management.