Security and Environment Resources

Security and Environment...Selected Sources


Books and Articles


University of Toronto Project on Environment, Population, and Security




Abdel Rahim, Nafissa et al. Greenwar, Environment and Conflict. London: Panos Institute, 1991. 156





Barnaby, Frank (ed.). The Gaia Peace Atlas. New York: Doubleday, 1988. 271 p.




Bertrand, Maurice. Global security and risk management: ideological and institutional

transformations at the end of the 20th [twentieth] century. Geneva: World Federation of United

Nations Associations, 1991. 11 p.




Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. An Agenda for Peace: Preventive Diplomacy, Peacemaking and

Peace-Keeping. New York: United Nations, 1992. 53 p.


Notes: Report of the Secretary-General of the United Nations pursuant to the statement adopted by the

Summit Meeting of the Security Council on 31 Jan. 1992.




Bower, Anthony G. and Peter D. Jacobson. A DOD Strategy for Pollution Prevention. Federal

Facilities Environmental Journal, Summer 1993: 185-201.




Bush, Kenneth. Climate change, global security, and international governance: a summary of

proceedings of a conference [held] Ottawa, 11-12 April, 1990. Canadian Institute for International

Peace and Security Working paper no.23. Ottawa: The Canadian Institute for International Peace and

Security, 1990. 59 p.


Conference on Climate Change and Global Security (1990 : Ottawa)


Abstract: Conference focused on the political, social and economic consequences of climate change and

the linkage between the world's economy and ecology, in terms of how policy decisions are taken and their

implications for ecological sustainability




Canada 21 (Twenty-one) Council and the University of Toronto Center for International Studies.

Canada and common security in the twenty-first century. Toronto: The Centre for International

Studies, 1994. 93 p.




Cleveland, Harlan. Birth of a New World: An Open moment for International Leadership. San

Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1993. 260 p.


Contents: "Cleveland analyzes what works and why in the politics of international security, trade, money,

and the environment. Exploring topics from the Gulf War to the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro to

Boris Yeltsin's efforts to cut nuclear arms, he outlines a detailed strategy for what must be done to 'make

the world safe for diversity.'" He was assistant secretary of state in the Kennedy administration and U.S.

ambassador to NATO under President Lyndon Johnson. Forward by Roberts McNamara.




Dalhousie University Centre for Foreign Policy Studies. Canadian marine policy and strategy

project: phase one report on national requirements. Halifax: Dalhousie University Center for Foreign

Policy Studies, 1992. 198 p



      Long-term factors and trends in marine policy;

      Environmental risks and management challenges;

      Marine transportation challenges;

      Potential threats to Canadian maritime security;

      Technological advances for sustainable development;

      Technological advances for marine transportation;

      Technological advances for maritime security;

      Foreseen tasks for sustainable development;

      Foreseen tasks for marine transportation;

      Foreseen tasks for maritime security.

Includes bibliography.




Evteev, S.E. Ecological security of sustainable development. Development , 1989 no. 2/3: 112-115.




Gleick, Peter H. and Miriam E. Lowi. University of Toronto Peace and Conflict Studies Program

and American Academy of Arts and Sciences International Security Studies Program. Water and

Conflict. Project on Environmental Change and Acute Conflict, occasional paper series no.1. Toronto:

University of Toronto, 1992. 62 p.


Bound with "West Bank Water Resources and the Resolution of Conflict in the Middle East " by Lowi.

Hawley, T.M. Against the fire of hell: the environmental disaster of the Gulf War. New York:

Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1992. 208 p.




Hjort af Ornas, Anders and Sverre Lodgaard. The Environment and International Security.

Uppsala: Uppsala University Research Programme on Environmental Policy and Society, 1992. 110 p.


Abstract: Environmental conflicts can be grouped into two main categories : (1) conflicts between man and

nature, centering on sustainability, and (2) conflicts between man and man, centering on development. In

recent years, the grand approach to environmental conflict resolution has been named "sustainable

development". For the future, the contradictions between short-term economic growth and a sustainable

global economy may become as fundamental as the contradiction between capitalism and communism was

during the Cold War. Environmental degradation thus adds yet another dimension to many existing

conflicts. This volume is an effort towards conceptualizing not one but many securities.




Hoagland, Sara and Susan Conbere. Environmental Stress and National Security. College Park, MD:

University of Maryland Center for Global Change, 1991. 73 p.




Homer-Dixon, Thomas F. Environmental scarcities and violent conflict: evidence from cases.

International Security, 19(1) : 5-40.




Homer-Dixon, Thomas F., Boutwell, Jeffrey H., Rathjens, George W. Environmental change and

violent conflict: growing scarcities of renewable resources can contribute to social instability and

civil strife. Scientific American: February 1993.




Homer-Dixon, Thomas F. On the threshold : environmental changes as causes of acute conflict.

International Security, 16(2) : 76-116.




Human Rights Watch and Natural Resources Defense Council. Defending the Earth: Abuses of

Human Rights and the Environment. Washington,D.C.: Natural Resources Defence Council. 106 p.


Abstract: Examines the relationship, often causal, between human rights and environmental abuses. Includes

case studes.




Kaplan, Robert D. The coming anarchy. Atlantic Monthly, February 1994: 44-76.


Abstract: A preview of the first decades of the twenty-first century: nations break up under the tidal flow of

refugees from environmental and social disaster. As borders crumble, another type of boundary is erected -

a wall of disease. Wars are fought over scarce resources, especially water, and war itself becomes

continuous with crime, as armed bands of stateless marauders clash with the private security forces of the





Kavanagh, Barbara and Stephen Lonergan. Environmental degradation, population displacement

and global security: an overview of the issues. CSRD Report no.1. Victoria, BC: The University of

Victoria Centre for Sustainable Regional Development Centre, 1992. 65 p.




Kirton, John. Sustainable development as a focus for Canadian foreign policy. Working paper Ottawa: National Round Table on the Environment and Economy, 1994. 28 p.


Notes: Prepared for the NRTEE Task Force on Foreign Policy and Sustainability.


Contents: (Selected): Beyond trade and competitiveness: Canadian foreign policy in 1990s; The new

economic agenda: strengthening trade-environment links; The new environmental agenda: pursuing the

promise of Rio; The new development agenda: co-ordinating resource redeployment; The new politicial

agenda: building social accountability; The new security agenda: fostering environmental security; Global

governance: shaping the new internationalism. Appendix A: Core definitions, princiiples, and dimensions of

sustainable development (including discussion on sustainable development and common security);

Appendix B: Public opinion on sustainable development as a Canadian foreign policy priority (and tables

from Angus Reid, Goldfarb, Decima and Harris)




Kothari, Rajni and United Nations University Programme on Peace and Global Transformation.

Towards a liberating peace. New York: New Horizons Press, 1988. 167 p.


Lonergan, Steve. Environmental change and regional security in Southeast Asia. Directorate of

Strategic Analysis project report no.PR 659. Ottawa: Canada Department of National Defence, 1994. 110



Abstract: Explores the linkages between environmental change and security, focusing on resource scarcity

problems, population displacement, and income disparities




Mungall, Constance and Digby McLaren. Planet under Stress: the Challenge of Global Change.

Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1990. 344 p.


Contents: (Selected): The changing atmosphere; The polar regions; The tempering seas; Fresh waters

cycle; Forests: barometers of environment and economy; Grasslands into deserts?; Grounds for concern:

environmental ethics in the face of global change; People pressure; From technological fix to appropriate

technology; Surprise and opportunity: in evolution, in ecosystems, in society; Peace, security, and new

forms of international governance




Myers, Norman. Ultimate Security: the Environmental Basis of Political Stability. New York: W.W.

Norton, 1993. 308 p.


Abstract: "Environmental problems can figure as causes of conflict. If we continue on our road to

environmental ruin worldwide, they will likely become predominant causes of conflict in the decades ahead.

That is the essential message of this book." - Author.




Renner, Michael. National Security: the Economic and Environmental Dimensions. Worldwatch

Paper no.89. Washington, DC: Worldwatch Institute, 1989.




Seager, Joni. Earth Follies: Coming to Feminist Terms with the Global Environmental Crisis. New

York: Routledge, 1993. 332 p.


Contents: Up in arms against the environment: the military; Business as usual; The eco-fringe: deep ecology

and ecofeminism.




Smil, Vaclav. Environmental change as a source of conflict and economic losses in China. Project

on Environmental Change and Acute Conflict Occasional paper no. 2. Cambridge, MA: Committee on

International Security Studies of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1992. 60 p.


Notes: Papers presented at a workshop on environmental change, economic decline, and civil strife, held at

the Institute for Strategic and International Studies, Kuala Lumpur, Nov 1991.


Bound with "Imminent political conflicts arising from China's environmental crisis", by Jack A. Goldstone.




Suhrke, Astri. Pressure points: environmental degradation, migration and conflict. Project on

Environmental Change and Acute Conflict Occasional paper no.3. Cambridge, MA: Committee on

International Security Studies of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1993. 67 p.


Notes: Includes bibliography. Papers prepared for a workshop on environmental change, population

displacement and acute conflict, held at the Institute for Research on Public Policy in Ottawa in June 1991


Bound with "Bangladesh and Assam : land pressures, migration and ethnic conflict", by Sanjoy Hazarika.




Suzuki, David. Inventing the future: Reflections on Science, Technology and Nature. Toronto:

Stoddart, 1989. 247 p.


Contents (selected): the knowledge of good and evil; Technology's double-edge sword; Science and the

military: an unholy alliance; The environment: the scope of the problem.




Thomas, Caroline. The environment in international relations. London: Royal Institute of International

Affairs, 1992. 291 p.


Contents: (Selected): The environment on the security agenda; Case studies: Global warming, Ozone

depletion, Deforestation




World Commission on Environment and Development. Our Common Future : The report of the

World Commission on Environment and Development. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

400 p.


Contents: Known as the "Brundtland Report". The mandate of the World Commission on Environment and

Development was to formulate " a global agenda for change". Chaired by Gro Harlem Brundtland.




Wykle, Lucinda, Ward Morehouse and David Dembo. Worker empowerment in a changing

economy: jobs, military production, and the environment. Croton-on-Hudson, NY: Apex Press, 1991.

84 p.






Holtzman, Joan. Selected economic conversion resources: 1990-1993. Mountain View, CA: Center

for Economic Conversion, 1993. 11 p.




Lowe, Judy, John M. Miller and Pat Kenoyer. Selected bibliography : impacts of the military on

the environment. United Nations Subcommittee on the Military and Environment of the Undergraduate

Prototype Committee, 1994. 11 p.